So you're contributing a module or theme to the greater Drupal community. Awesome! We're thrilled that you're sharing your work.
Naming your project may be one of the last things on your mind, but a poor naming choice could cause you issues down the road. Your project name ends up in a lot of places, including: Google Search Results, Drupal.org related project listings, the URL to the project, the title of your project page, Drush commands, the filenames of your project files, hook invocations in your project, and CSS classes, to name a few. A name that's used inconsistently can be confusing for users and cause integration issues.
There are several principles to consider and some are more important than others, so I've broken them into three categories: The Essentials, Strong Recommendations, and Further Suggestions.