The private lives of public IPs and EC2 security groups
by Jacob Singh
As many of you know, I’m working on a Hosted Search product at Acquia. We’re building a pretty cool page where you can get some analytics on your search index and what people are searching for. Here is the deets on Dries’s site (hope he doesn’t mind ;0 )
For this, we’re using Splunk which is a tad more pricey than I’d like, but a really amazing tool. Basically, it is grep + awk + a kilo of coke + a dozen redbulls + a Ferrari Testerosa + the same HGH A-Rod has been chewing. I’ll write more about it at some point, but this screen shot should give you an idea:
Anyway, we use Splunk’s API to grab data into acquia.com and show the page above. The page was taking 10 seconds to load… I was stumped. Splunk seemed so fast, a couple seconds is reasonable for loading a report from millions of records, but 10 seconds was pretty extreme.
Eventually we discovered it was not Splunk at all, but a separate call in our code to a webservice (Call it Info Server) in EC2 which was being firewalled by Amazon. This caused the request to sit there for 10 seconds, and then timeout.
Here’s how security groups work:
I’ve got 2 servers:
Web Server – Serves static files (:80 and :443) and passes tough stuff to app server
App Server – serves requests back up to web server on :8080
Web Server needs to be able to access App server to push proxied requests through.
In EC2, each server has 1(or more) security groups. A security group is a list of access rights. These can be by Port & IP Range or they can be references to other groups. (wtf?)
Yeah, so the rule for the web server would probably be something like:
IP:188.8.131.52/24 Port:10000 (maybe some admin port for a certain location to access)
For the App Server, we don’t want 8080 world readable. We also don’t know the IP of the web server because this is elastic baby, servers can’t stand still. That’s why we give group permissions. So it looks like:
Group: Web Server
Which means any server launched on your account with the security group “Web Server” will have total access to any server launched with the security group “App Server”. Got it?
If not, here is an FBI style blackout picture which might make it more clear:
In our case, we had a problem because we were referencing the external IP of our server(Info Server). See in the depths of the Amazon, each machine has a public IP and a private IP. So when you look for infoserver.acquia.com (made up, btw) it will resolve to 74.x.x.x When you try to look for ec2-10-45-123-41.compute.aws…. it will resolve to 10.24.134.41 and both point to the same place. The difference of course is that the security group settings only apply when you are using the internal IP even if both servers are inside the cloud
Hope you’ve been saved some pain.